9 March 2012
on women and climate change
In his latest book, sustainable development expert Jorgen Randers offers an analysis of what the world will be like in the year 2052. It’s not a pretty picture.
Many authors writing about the future dismiss doubts and contrary opinions, striving with provocative titles such as The End of History and the Last Man (by Francis Fukuyama) or The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (by Ray Kurzweil) to persuade readers that the future they envision is not only plausible but inevitable. Thankfully, Jorgen Randers foregoes this temptation in his new book, 2052: A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years (White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2012).
Randers predicts that the climate
will continue to change, leading
to more extreme weather events and floods.
Randers, an expert on business and sustainable development and currently a professor of climate strategy at BI Norwegian Business School, offers a nuanced analysis of the state of the world today and a forecast for global development for the coming decades. It’s not a pretty picture. Writing in the first person, Randers is not shy about discussing his worries about the resource, environmental and societal challenges the world faces. “I have lived my whole adult life worrying about the future,” Randers admits. His candor and expertise, gained over decades of work in sustainable development for businesses and governments, yield a book well worth reading and discussing with colleagues, friends and family.
Along with other countries where the Arab Spring caught hold, Yemen has been gripped by major upheaval over the past year. Although President Ali Abdullah Saleh finally ceded power in February after his administration’s violent reprisals failed to deter protesters, the country remains at a crossroads. As its political future continues to evolve, the new government must also address a range of deep-seated economic and social challenges. In addition to claiming more than 2,000 lives, the crisis has undermined Yemenis’ livelihoods and even their access to food. A recent World Food Programme survey found that more than one-fifth of Yemen’s population is living in conditions of “severe food insecurity” – double the rate measured three years ago – and another fifth is facing moderate difficulty in feeding themselves and their families.
“What we have discovered is that the very best predictor of how insecure and unstable a nation is not its level of democracy, it’s not its level of wealth, it’s not what ‘Huntington civilization’ it belongs to, but is in fact best predicted by the level of violence against women in the society,” said Valerie Hudson, co-author of Sex and World Peace, at an April 26 book launch at the Wilson Center.
Co-author Chad Emmett joined Hudson, along with Jeni Klugman, the World Bank’s director of gender and development, and Richard Cincotta, demographer-in-residence at the Stimson Center, to discuss the security implications of gender inequality and potential policy responses.
The Paradox of Missing Women
The basis of the book – applying a gender lens to international security – followed from early feedback from her colleagues at Brigham Young University, who suggested that if her goal was to understand the reasons for “blood spilt and lives lost,” she would do better to look at ideological conflict rather than women’s security.
A chronic shortage of medical staff and facilities in Malawi has led to the adoption of task-sharing among health workers, which is having a positive effect on family planning and obstetric care
Rosemary Banda's son Adam was stillborn 38 years ago. When she was eventually seen by a traditional birth attendant in a remote Malawian village, it was too late. She was 16 years old.
"I was not able to conceive again and was disowned by my family," she says. Banda now lives abroad and raises funds to help young mothers in Malawi. As a way of dealing with the trauma of losing her only child, she has created an image for herself of what Adam would have become – a well-dressed, smiling doctor helping young mothers. "Now I'm helping them instead of him," she says.
"We only have about 300 doctors in Malawi and 2,000 registered nurses," says Dorothy Ngoma, newly appointed national co-ordinator for safe motherhood in the Office of the President. "But we try to do everything we can to ensure that family planning services are available to all women, especially in the rural areas."
Experts weigh in on predicaments caused by a burgeoning world population
Sometime on Monday, Oct. 31, the world's population is projected to hit 7 billion. Is that numerical milestone a cause for celebration or concern?
A little bit of both, according to the United Nations Population Fund. The organization, an international development agency that promotes the right of every person to enjoy a life of health and equal opportunity, on Wednesday released a report detailing the achievements and setbacks faced by an ever-crowded world.
How we respond now will determine whether we have a healthy, sustainable and prosperous future or one that is marked by inequalities, environmental decline and economic setbacks, according to "The State of World Population 2011" report.
Residents crowd in a swimming pool to escape the summer heat during a hot spell in Daying county of Suining, Sichuan province. China is the world's most populous nation with more than 1.3 billion people
Last week, 1,600 venture capitalists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs gathered at the 2012 Social Capital Markets conference to discuss the question at the heart of impact investing: How can investments do well while also doing good? Consistent with the in-depth nature of SOCAP, panels examined every aspect of capital flows, including how to structure a business, how to move an idea from a prototype to scale, and where to invest for maximum impact. The resulting conversations gave rise to multiple technical suggestions—and one paradigm shift. In order to do well and do good, multiple conference participants argued, investors must incorporate a gender lens into their portfolio.
The concept of unment need
The concept of “unmet need for contraception”, which refers to the proportion of women who do not want to become pregnant but are not using contraception, has been used in the international population field since the 1960s. The concept was developed from the first family planning and fertility surveys conducted in developing countries, which found a disconnect between women’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about contraception. This gap between what the respondents knew, their fertility preferences, and behaviors to achieve their stated preferences, became known first as the “KAP-Gap” and was used as a strong rationale for investment in family planning programs (Casterline and Sinding, 2000). The subsequent development of the unmet need concept has been supported by the availability of datasets from over 75 countries collected by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program. Difficulties with the measurement and interpretation of the concept have been described in several papers by Westoff and coauthors since the 1970s[2–6]. In this note, we summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the unmet need indicator, discuss the differences between demand and supply factors for unmet need, show the differences between unmet need and the intention to use contraception, and clarify the relevance of the concept for investing in family planning programs.
Within the hour in which you read this article, nearly 20 women will die in Africa. Those deaths will not occur from road accidents or flooding. They will not arise from sickness or war. Instead, they will happen to women in the prime of their lives through complications of pregnancy and childbirth.
Sadly, those 444 women will lose their lives on the way to giving life; a carnage that is even more remarkable because it is avoidable.
These deaths are taking place despite the fact that every African nation made a solemn commitment to reduce maternal death when they pledged their support to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Nigeria's maternal death rate is Africa's highest. It is second in the world only to India's. In fact, while Nigeria represents only 2 per cent of the world's population, it accounts for over 10 per cent of the world's maternal deaths.
Working with their Hungarian colleagues, scientists Donella and Dennis Meadows organized the first meeting of the Balaton Group in Csopak, Hungary, in 1982. Donella died unexpectedly in 2001, and Dennis relinquished all his responsibilities for organizing and financing the group after its 25th annual meeting in 2006. But he remains a steadfast participant in its meetings and a keen observer of its members’ highly diverse work. Here Solutions interviews Dennis about the group’s founding, the impact of its meetings, and the current thinking about sustainability around the world.
As the UN and Oxfam warn of the dangers ahead, expert analyst Lester Brown says time to solve the problem is running out
Brandon Hunnicutt has had a year to remember. The young Nebraskan from Hamilton County farms 2,600 acres of the High Plains with his father and brother. What looked certain in an almost perfect May to be a "phenomenal" harvest of maize and soy beans has turned into a near disaster.
A three-month heatwave and drought with temperatures often well over 38C burned up his crops. He lost a third and was saved only by pumping irrigation water from the aquifer below his farm.
"From 1 July to 1 October we had 4ins of rain and long stretches when we didn't have any. Folk in the east had nothing at all. They've been significantly hurt. We are left wondering whether the same will happen again," he says.
As the Earth’s surface warms, climate models predict that the amount of fresh water for human consumption will likely decrease in parts of the globe. While that prospect looms for many cities around the world, a new study finds a more imminent threat to water supplies of cities in the tropical Andes, such as Lima, Peru and Quito, Ecuador.
“Despite all the uncertainty of the future impact of climate change, the impact of population growth is much bigger,” said Wouter Buytaert of Imperial College London, an environmental engineer and lead author of the study. This could mean harsher times ahead for millions including the 7.6 and 2.2 million inhabitants of the fast growing cities of Lima and Quito.
Some parts of the tropical Andes, a region along the northwestern coast of South America, already lack sufficient water to meet demand. To help policy makers combat this water scarcity, Buytaert and his colleague, Bert De Bièvre of the Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion in Quito, Ecuador, compared the two main drivers of water depletion in that region – climate change and population growth.
This Lancet Series reviews the evidence for the effects of population and family planning on people's well-being and the environment. The Series appears ahead of the London Summit on Family Planning, hosted by the UK Government, on Wednesday, July 11, 2012. The Summit will bring together participants from across the world to mobilise global action supporting the rights of 120 million additional women and girls to access family planning without coercion or discrimination.
The Lancet Series amalgamates the latest thinking underpinning these crucial deliberations, showing how lack of access to family planning carries a huge price, not only in terms of women's and children's health and survival but also in economic terms.
After remaining stable for most of human history, the world's population has exploded over the last two centuries. The boom is not over: The biggest generation in history is just entering its childbearing years. The coming wave will reshape the planet, and the impact will be greatest in the poorest, most unstable countries.
Testimonies from FP experts and advocates on why it is important to invest in addressing the unmet need for FP
Testimonies from FP experts and advocates on why it is important to invest in addressing the unmet need for FP
6 fact sheets in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese making the case for addressing the unmet need for FP from various perspectives (http://www.countdown2015europe.org/resources/countdown-2015-europe-resources/ )
A toolkit for advocates: Handbook of Advocacy Tools for Stating the Case for Meeting the Need”
In order to raise awareness on the FP Summit and World Population Day with the general public across Europe and to strengthen the European voice on the issue outside of the UK, Countdown 2015 Europe partners in 15 European countries worked closely together with journalists, offering OpEds and giving interviews, which were shared in the national newspapers and on the national radio and TV. FYI, an initial overview of the most important media coverage in 9 European countries can be found on the Countdown 2015 Europe website: www.countdown2015europe.org/FPSummit
Trends analyses in 13 European donor countries on global policy and funding support for RH and FP
A girl in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (© CI/photo by Hari Balasubramanian)
Sifting through the post-mortem coverage of the Rio+20 discussions, I was discouraged to see that global population growth issues were largely ignored in the final outcome document. Yet in recent months, I have seen clear signs of hope for expanded collaboration across the health, development and conservation sectors.
Advocates from these fields are working to better link solutions for meeting the health needs of the world’s 7 billion current inhabitants — including improvements in family planning, family health and women’s empowerment — directly to sustainable development. This World Population Day, I am more optimistic than ever that population growth issues are not being forgotten. Here are a few reasons why.
There is an increased determination to spread the benefits of contraception, says Andrew Jack.
As World Population Day approaches on Wednesday, the medium – a UN website – may be glossier than ever, but the message is the same. There is wide agreement on what is required to provide reproductive health to all, but the reality is falling far short.
Nearly 20 years after governments reached consensus at an international conference in Cairo on family planning in 1994, progress has been limited and, in some cases, the trend has gone into reverse. About 215m women in developing countries seeking contraception cannot get it. That means 75m unintended pregnancies every year, threatening the health and lives of millions of mothers and their children. Meanwhile, the world population has exceeded 7bn, placing fresh pressure on economic growth, the environment and the wellbeing of communities.
- Together with safe services for abortion, family planning is marginalised as a taboo associated with immorality and female sexual liberty,
- Together with bed nets for malaria, family planning is under resourced as a preventative health measure; its health impact hugely undervalued compared to curative interventions,
- Together with maternal health care, family planning is neglected because its major beneficiaries are women,
- And, perhaps uniquely, family planning is often overlooked because of its association with coercive programmes in the past that must have no place in modern health policy.
A head of the Rio+20 summit, Tewodros Melesse, Director-General of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, blogs in the British Medical Journal about the importance of access to reproductive health –
When world leaders gather in Rio this month they will be hammering out a new set of goals to measure sustainable development. This time it’s the SDGs (sustainable development goals)—goals which will influence a new development framework. But before we rush to embrace another acronym, we need to tackle a basic injustice left over from the last development goals—access to reproductive health.
Population Growth: the Neglected ‘Green’ Issue
A Text for Rio+20
“Population stabilization should be a priority for sustainable development”: Kofi Annan, former UN Secretary-General. (Key Recommendation of GHF 2009).
“Either we reduce our numbers voluntarily, or nature will do it for us brutally”: Maurice Strong, Secretary-General first Earth Summit, Rio, 1992.
“It’s no use reducing your footprint if you keep increasing the number of feet”: popular saying.
NEW YORK, NY—Late Friday at the 45th Session of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development (CPD), member states issued a bold resolution in support of young people’s sexual and reproductive health and human rights.
This victory comes on the heels of a UNICEF report released this week highlighting the challenges the largest-ever generation of young people face—including HIV/AIDS, violence and unintended pregnancy—and reaffirms international agreements including the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action (ICPD).
Uganda’s population is the second youngest in the world, with half of the country younger than 15.7 years old (just older than Niger’s median age of 15.5 years). In the past 10 years, the country – about half the size of France in land area – has added 10 million people, growing from 24 to 34 million. That growth, paired with other factors like poor governance and long-standing insecurity, has made providing basic services a difficult task for a government that is one of Africa's most aid-dependent.
Source: Global Leaders Council for Reproductive Health, Aspen Institute, 2011 : 8.
This policy brief explores the complex relationship between population dynamics and economic development in developing countries. When populations transition from high mortality and fertility rates to longer life expectancies and smaller family size, this is known as the demographic dividend. The brief expains how, during this transition phase, possible economic benefits are significant. Finally, the authors make recommendations for policy changes to increase investments in family planning and reproductive health, girls' education and economic development for youth.
Source: Global Health Leaders Council for Reproductive Health, Aspen Institute, 2011 : 7.
This policy brief examines the complex challenges of reducing poverty, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and coping with a changing climate. Although rapid population growth makes it more difficult for poor countires to cope with a changing climate, the brief argues that investments in family planning and reproductive health and empowering women can help address these issues. The bottom line is that family planning is a win-win for women and the planet.
Source: Global Leaders Council on Reproductive Health, Aspen Institute, 2011 : 8.
This policy brief looks at the relationships between increasing world population and the ever-growing need for food and water resources and ecosystem health in the context of climate change. In order to acheive sustainable development and meet human needs today and tomorrow, the brief promotes universal access to family plannng and reproductive health services and women's empowerment initiatives.
A market in Lagos, Nigeria, a country whose high birthrates presage a demographic crisis.
LAGOS, Nigeria — In a quarter-century, at the rate Nigeria is growing, 300 million people — a population about as big as that of the present-day United States — will live in a country roughly the size of Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada. In this commercial hub, where the area’s population has by some estimates nearly doubled over 15 years to 21 million, living standards for many are falling.
Lifelong residents like Peju Taofika and her three granddaughters inhabit a room in a typical apartment block known as a “Face Me, Face You” because whole families squeeze into 7-by-11-foot rooms along a narrow corridor. Up to 50 people share a kitchen, toilet and sink — though the pipes in the neighborhood often no longer carry water.
Small talk about the weather with my Malawian taxi driver became serious very quickly. “We no longer know when the rains are coming,” he said as we bumped along the road toward the Lilongwe airport last November. “It is very difficult, because we don’t know when to plant.”
These days, he is grateful for his job driving a taxi. His extended family and friends are among the 85 percent of Malawians employed in agriculture, much of which is small-holder, rain-fed subsistence farming. Weather-related farming challenges contribute to ongoing food insecurity in Malawi, where one in five children is undernourished.
His observations of the recent changes in climate match forecasts for the region: in East Africa, climate change is expected to reduce the productivity of maize – Malawi’s main subsistence crop – by more than 20 percent by 2030, according to a recent analysis by Oxfam International.
High school for girls = population control = sustainable growth.
I know this may seem like a simplistic equation. But in interviews on the causes and effects of runaway population growth in Africa for a weekend article in The Times, many experts suggested one singularly effective intervention: make sure that girls to go to high school.
I heard it from Peter Ogunjuyigbe, a demographer in the city of Ile-Ife, Nigeria, who is studying population growth with financing from the Gates Foundation and the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. I heard it from Parfait M. Eloundou-Enyegue, a development sociologist at Cornell. I heard it most forcefully, perhaps, from Babatunde Osotimehin, the executive director of the United Nations Population Fund, who views population stabilization as tightly linked to female empowerment.
Dear Mr. Zukang, Ms. Thompson, and Mr. Lalonde:
- cc: H.E. Dr. John W. Ashe, H.E. Mr. Sook Kim
We, young people and adult allies from around the world, appreciate your collective leadership to foster sustainable development and thank you for your deep commitment to making the world a better place for all.
As the time for the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20 Summit)
approaches, we would like to bring to your attention a powerful force in these discussions — young people. As you may know, today’s generation of young people is the largest in history — nearly half the world’s population is under the age of 25, including 1.2 billion adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19.
As active citizens of our countries and the world, we are deeply concerned with the environment and the need for sustainable approaches to development. The time is now for action and for using all possible tools at our disposal. One such tool that has been overlooked and yet has the potential to significantly impact sustainable development is the promotion of sexual and reproductive health and rights.
In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt, recognized reproductive health and family planning as fundamental human rights. Delegates committed to making voluntary family planning services universally available by 2015.
Now just three years from that deadline, at least 215 million women want to prevent or delay pregnancy but are not using effective contraception. This “unmet need” for family planning may be due to poor reproductive health information, social pressures, or insufficient access to contraceptive options. In Africa, more than 1 in 4 women have unmet need—by far the highest rate of any region.
Source: Alertnet // Lisa Anderson
NEW YORK (AlertNet) - Finding a way to put the environmental impact of population and women’s reproductive health more prominently on the climate change agenda is increasingly urgent, experts said in Washington this week.
Suggesting a strong connection between family planning and the environment often risks an explosion in the highly charged political landscape of climate talks, meaning the word “population” is rarely heard, observed speakers on a panel assembled by the Wilson Center’s Environmental Change and Security Program (ECSP).
Kavita Ramdas, executive director of Stanford University’s social entrepreneurship program, calls making the link between population and the environment “the last taboo”.
By Lisa Hymas
Here is yet another indication that women are greener than men.
According to a new study in Social Science Research, “controlling for other factors, in nations where women’s status is higher, CO2 emissions are lower.”
Study coauthors Christina Ergas and Richard York, sociologists at the University of Oregon–Eugene, write:
even when controlling for a variety of measures of “modernization,” world-system position, and democracy, nations where women have higher political status — as indicated by the length of time women have had the right to vote and women’s representation in parliament and ministerial government — tend to have lower CO2 emissions per capita. This ﬁnding suggests that efforts to improve women’s political status around the world, clearly worthy on their own merits, may work synergistically with efforts to reduce CO2 emissions and avert dramatic global climate change.
Learning Brief Number 3: Goodwill Generation for Conservation through the Population-Health-Environment Approach
The Population-Health-Environment (PHE) Alliance Project, implemented by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) from 2008 to 2011, with support from the United States Agency for International Development’s Office of Population and Reproductive Health and Johnson & Johnson, aimed to change that practice, and by doing so, deepen the sector’s understanding of the value of the PHE approach for conservation,and how the sector could better measure that value. The following learning brief explores the role ofgoodwill generation in-site based conservation through the PHE approach, using a case study from one PHE Alliance project site- in Nepal.
The brief concludes that generating goodwill for conservation is a viable justification for implementing PHE projects to improve conservation outcomes. The case study highlights positive outcomes relating to the generation of goodwill for conservation, in a place where communities have historically been somewhat suspicious about WWF’s conservation agenda. The case study findings sugg st that in the future, with more research, the PHE approach might emerge as a useful strategy for transforming community attitudes and behaviors towards conservation that are critical to ensuring long term conservation success.
Learning Brief 2: Engendering Conservation Constituencies: Understanding the Links between Women’s Empowerment and Biodiversity Conservation Outcomes for PHE Programs - WWF-Nepal Case Study
As part of its global Population-Health-Environment (PHE) Alliance from 2008 to 2011, World Wildlife Fund-US undertook a PHE learning agenda, with the support of USAID and Johnson & Johnson. This WWF-Nepal case study was produced by gender consultant Nancy Diamond to explore the impact of PHE activities of the WWF-Nepal Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) Project on women’s empowerment to inform the global PHE community. From a research perspective, the key research questions focus on how PHE activities have contributed to women’s empowerment and how empowered women contribute to conservation outcomes. From an operational perspective, this case study piloted a new methodology, the WWF Women’s Economic, Social and Political Empowerment (WWESPE) Tool, for project staff. The aim is to help conservation and/or other PHE project staff understand how their PHE (or conservation-only) projects are contributing to women’s empowerment and the conservation outcomes from these efforts and learn how to enhance these women’s empowerment impacts (i.e., more types of empowerment impacts and more women benefiting).
The case study found that overall the TAL and TAL-PHE approach helped to advance women's empowerment and thier involvement in conservation in Teria project communities. While the extent and pattern of women's economic, social and political empowerment varied within project communities, the report found that the use of adult and youth teams of men and women peer educators and inclusion of a gender module in the peer educator trainings were two successful project elements that contributed to women's empowerment.
Learning Brief Number 1: Conservation and Family Planning: What is the value of integrating family planning into conservation projects?
By: Cara Honzak and Judy Oglethorpe
September 1, 2011
The following brief is an abridged version of an article that has been submitted to a journal for
Conservation organizations have integrated family planning into site‐based conservation activities in
selected countries for almost two decades yet lacked strong evidence of the approach’s value to
conservation. Today this approach has come to be known as the integrated “population, health and
environment” approach, or “PHE.” Drawing on lessons from early integrated conservation and
development projects (known as ICDPs), PHE projects aimed to be more targeted yet still integrated.
In 2004, with support from the United States Agency for International Development’s Office of
Population and Reproductive Health and Johnson & Johnson, WWF launched an effort to an answer the
question, “What is the value of integrating family planning into conservation projects, through a PHE
NEW YORK, 23 March 2012—UNICEF and UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, today launched a high-level commission to improve access to essential but overlooked health supplies that could save the lives of millions of women and children every year.
The results of a recent Americans for UNFPA survey show women’s health and rights are top priorities for many environmentalists, said panelists at the Wilson Center, perhaps paving the way for more cooperation.
Demographer Elizabeth Leahy Madsen profiles the process of building political commitment in three countries whose governments have made strong investments in family planning.
With more than 400 people per square kilometer, Rwanda has the highest population density rate on the African mainland. However, newly released preliminary data show an unprecedented fertility decline in just a few years, as the Rwandan government gains a reputation as one of the most committed to family planning on the African continent. [read more]
Iran is only one of few countries outside the developed world where fertility rates have declined from more than four children per woman to replacement level in 15 years or less, due to the efforts of government officials and public health experts. [read more]
With both an extensive community outreach program and a centralized government that made family planning a priority, the world’s fourth most populous country is classified among the pioneers of family planning in the developing world.
We must ask whether investments to protect biologically rich areas are effective and sustainable if they don’t respond to the many needs of the people who live there, writes ECSP Director Geoff Dabelko in a column for Momentum magazine.
If any resource could seriously limit growth, it would be water. The planet’s supply of freshwater is fixed, and there is no substitute for its life-giving qualities. Still, a global water crisis is not inevitable, writes Laurie Mazur.
Marie Stopes International statement of support
Bill & Melinda Gates foundation prioritises family planning
London, 25 January 2012: Today, Bill and Melinda Gates identified family planning as a key priority for the year ahead in Bill Gates’ annual letter.
Author: Dr. Tilak S Fernando
Sex education is regarded as a formal instruction on topics linking human sexuality such as anatomy, reproduction, intercourse, abstinence, contraception and numerous human sexual behaviour enwrapping emotional relations and rights and responsibilities. Customary avenues for sex education are parents, school programmes and public health campaigns.
Author: Dirk Jenna
The Fiji Times Online
IN June this year, the 'world' will meet in Brazil for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development or Rio+20 - 20 years after the Earth Summit in Rio where countries adopted Agenda 21, a blueprint to rethink economic growth, advance social equity and ensure environment protection.
“Population, development, and climate should be a single discussion,” explained Jacques van Zuydam ofSouth Africa’s National Population Unit. Van Zuydam, speaking to a sparsely filled room at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Durban last month, centers his work around the concept that climate matters because people matter.